Definitions of various types of editing and what is entailed in each.

Developmental Editing
This is “from the ground—up” editing, and involves the editor’s talent as a writer, as well.  Since I am both a published author and an editor, should you require developmental editing, you will have both talents available to you in one place.
Developmental Editing encompasses any or all of the following:
v  working with the client and, usually, the author of a book or other document to develop a manuscript from initial concept, rough draft, or even an outline, through any number of subsequent drafts.  In other words, we take your idea and develop it together under your sole authorship.
v  analyzing competing works within the genre, reading commentary of expert reviewers, reviewing the general market and other references deemed appropriate and making suggestions to the author/client regarding content, organization, and presentation.
v  writing, researching, rewriting as needed.

Substantive Editing
Substantive Editing focuses on the “big picture” aspect of the work.  Substantive editors may either make changes directly to the work, or they may suggest the changes and let the author implement them, depending upon the author’s/client’s preference.
Substantive Editing involves working with a manuscript in any or all of the following ways:
v  Identifying and solving problems of overall accuracy or clarity                                 
vCreating a story timeline to ensure that the text moves forward in a logical and physically possible time/space continuum
v  Reorganizing the manuscript, be it paragraphs, chapters, or just sections, to be sure the text is presented in the correct order
v  Improving the readability, flow, or pacing by writing or rewriting text segments
v  Revising text segments to improve presentation
v  Consulting other experts about areas of concern
v  Incorporating responses to inquiries and suggestions in order to create a new draft of the manuscript.

Copyediting (sometimes called "Line Editing")

This is the more mechanical side of editing, and probably the one people are most familiar with. 
Copyediting encompasses any or all of the following:
v  Correction of errors in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, syntax, usage, and style; while simultaneously preserving the voice and intent of the author (NOTE:  This bullet point is BASIC Copyediting.  HEAVY Copyediting includes ALL Copyediting bullet points.)
v  Checking for or imposing a consistent style and format
v  Preparing a style sheet that documents style and format
v  Reading for overall clarity and sense from reader's/audience point of view 
v  Querying the appropriate party about apparent errors or inconsistencies
v  Noting permissions needed to publish copyrighted material
v  Preparing the manuscript for the next phase of the publishing process
v  Cross-checking references, art, figures, tables, equations, and other features for consistency with their mentions in the text.


Proofreading may include one or more of the following:
v  Comparing the latest copy with the previous copy, marking discrepancies in the text, and when appropriate, checking for problems in page makeup or layout, color separations, or type
v  Checking proof against typesetting specifications
v  Querying or correcting errors or inconsistencies that may have escaped an editor or writer
v  Reading for typographical errors or for sense without reading against copy.

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